Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2023 [Updated List]

List Of Best Programming Languages

This is a comprehensive list of the best programming languages you can learn in 2023 with potential salary, market demand, and popularity.

Development is an ever-upgrading area to work in. Global involvement and changing market demands have resulted in a plethora of programming languages, arrayed to confuse new learners. You may find students asking queries, like:

  1. To learn languages like GO and Kotlin or is it better to stick to legendary languages like C and Java?
  2. Is it Python making the louder roar or Scala is dragging more attention in the tech world

All in all, it’s a great puzzle to solve and select the best language to learn among hundreds. However, we’ve jotted down the evens and odds of the best programming languages, which will pay the highest and will remain in great demand during 2023. Pick as per your career choices:

What are the Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2023?

Here is how we arrived at this list.

  1. This list is based on the data collected from popular indexes like TIOBE & PYPL.
  2. we have done research on developer surveys conducted by several organizations like Stackoverflow & Github
  3. We have taken the average salaries from the research done by popular job websites like Indeed, salary, talent, etc.

1. Python

Picking the best of C and C++, Python is made. It is a very powerful language high-level programming language, capable of structuring a clear small-scale program as well as large-scale programs with the same ease. Python is the guy that everyone likes at the party. The community support has grown over the years and now it is a huge name in the geek community.

Python is quite simple to learn and follows conventional object-oriented programming concepts. R is not well suited to fit in as a comprehensive tool for data scientists. Python fills in those gaps as it is a lucid and practical tool.

A data scientist should know deep learning, a rising subject in the machine learning domain. And, python has all the capabilities and vibrant community to help you achieve your learning goals.

Naturally, it is one of the best programming languages if you are planning to move into the field of data analytics, data science, or big data. Since Python puts a lot of emphasis on readability; it is quite easy to understand the code written by others. You can also run machine learning algorithms using Scikit-learn, the native machine learning algorithm.

Applications like YouTube, Instagram, Spotify, Netflix, Reddit, etc. use Python for their services.

Here is a study from Jetbrains on Python usage. 55% of the respondents use Python for Data Analytics.

Percentage of engineering using Python for data analytics.

Following are the top use cases for Python.

  1. Web development
  2. Data Science
  3. Machine Learning
  4. DevOps/SRE/System Administration
  5. Web Scrapping
  6. Game Development

Also, If you look at the best programming language for devops engineers, python is at the top.

The Average Python Developer Salary in 2023: $110,416

Who Should Learn Python?

Python has huge demand in the areas of Data Science, Data Engineering, Machine Learning, web development, and DevOps platform engineering. It is a good option to learn for beginners who wish to perform expert-level tasks. You can seek a lot of awesome career opportunities by learning this language.

2. Java

Write anywhere, run anywhere – the mantra of Java is quite appealing to developers. It is an all-purpose friend, whether you are coding an application or planning to become a data scientist or a mobile app developer, Java can make your life easy! Since a large part of Android runs on Java, it is beneficial to learn to program in Java. Then you can probably start learning Android SDK and focus on app development in a full-fledged way.

As per the developer survey, 35.35% of the respondents use Java. Following are some of the top organizations that use Java for their workloads.

  1. Uber.
  2. Google
  3. Netflix
  4. Pinterest.
  5. Spotify.
  6. Airbnb
  7. Amazon

If you want to learn a traditional language, then Java will be a safe bet. Many distributed systems like Storm, Kafka, etc. are written in Java. If you check open-source projects from Apache Foundation, 57.6% of the applications are written in Java.

Usage of Java in Open Source application development.

Java has been in the business for a long time and has provided a foundation to many website and software structures. It can be used by data scientists as well, but it doesn’t provide the brilliance of R and Python.

So it looks like Java will be here for a long time to come! Java has nearly 9 million developers so you can expect exceptional community support

Average Java Developer Salary in 2023: $100,257

Who Should Learn Java?

Java plays a wide role in designing mobile applications, microservices, applications servers, Enterprise applications, scientific applications, Graphic user interface (GUI) applications like abstract windowing toolkit (AWT), etc. So if you would love to code applications, software products, web apps, and mobile apps, it will be great to become a Java Developer. You’ll earn faster too.

3. Javascript

As per a survey conducted by Statista, Javascript is the most used programming language among developers worldwide

Javascript survey data from statista

Javascript has changed from a simple UI language to powerful backend programming using NodeJs. There are many derivatives of JavaScript that you should consider. Following is the list.

  1. NodeJS
  2. Vue JS
  3. Backbone JS
  4. Angular Js
  5. React JS.

You can see a full list of JavaScript libraries from here.

As per the State of the Octoverse report by Github, Javascript continues to be the top programming language.

Javascript listing on state of octoverse

I don’t have to mention the companies that use Javascript because almost all companies use it one way or another.

The average salary of a Javascript developer in 2023 is $110,975.

Who Should Learn JavaScript?

From Web app development to front-end, JavaScript has found its applications everywhere. Probably, this is the reason behind such a varying and attractive salary range being provided for it. People, thinking of working in software engineering, web development, interface-building, and vulnerability-checking domains can opt for JS.

4. GoLang (Go)

Go or Google Programming language is based loosely on C. It has gotten a lot of popularity in 2016 and that might skyrocket in 2017.

The language was designed with the idea of eliminating some common flaws that are present in many other modern languages, which makes it a clean and simple alternative. It is used by companies like BBC, SoundCloud, IBM, and Klout, among others.

As per a survey conducted by the official Golang community, Golang is mainly used for web programming, Databases, and DevOps tools.

In fact, the popular container orchestration system Kubernetes is written in GoLang.

Survey result of domains where GoLang is used.

With an average salary of $117,000, Go can be a suitable option for developers.

Who Should Learn Go?

GO is used in designing toolboxes, documentation of browsers, search engines, source indexing, analysis, and search. So, it will be beneficial for securing a good earning package by learning this language. Also, for people who are into devops, this is a great language for creating small to big utilities.

5. c#

C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language developed by Microsoft. Even after two decades, C# continues to be on the list of top programming languages.

Applications Slack, Insightly, Pinterest, and Tableau are written in c#. Also, C# is leveraged by many Microsoft desktop applications like Photoshop, Microsoft Office, etc.

The StackOverflow developer survey shows that 27% of developers use C# and it came as one of the top programming languages.

Percentage of developers using C# language.

C# is used by a number of well-known companies, including BBC, SoundCloud, IBM, and Klout. It is a versatile language that can be used for a variety of purposes, making it a popular choice for businesses.

The average salary of a c# developer in 2023 is $74,692.

6. PHP

PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP is one of the most popular programming languages in the world and is used by millions of websites.

It is a relatively easy language to learn for beginners, and there are many resources available online. Content management frameworks like WordPress, Joomla, and the e-commerce framework Magento are built with PHP. More than 30% of the web is powered by WordPress websites.

As per the survey conducted by Zend, 41% of users use PHP for API/Service development and 13% for CMS.

Usage of PhP language in development

The average salary for a PHP developer in 2023 is $91,508

7. Scala

If there was a language that had the best of both functional and object-oriented concepts, then it was Scala. It is a rockstar programming language – it brings in real-time processing and is an object of admiration. It has unhindered access to Java as it uses the JVM. It can handle huge data with its libraries, match patterns, and focus on interactive development.

Other great features include support for big data and REPL. The downside is its compiler which is quite comparable to a Pentium 5 processor. It could do with some improvement, but overall it is forgivable for its follies.

The average Scala Developer Salary in 2023 is $136,500

Who Should Learn Scala?

Scala is frequently used to design Web applications, Data streaming with Akka, Parallel batch processing, Concurrency and distributed applications, Data analysis with Spark, AWS, and Ad hoc scripting in REPL. Programming enthusiasts, who have an interest in these areas and are willing to high salary packages (Off Course!) should put their efforts into enriching Scala Knowledge and Skills.

8. R

If Python is Leonard Hofstadter, then R is the annoying and unforgettable friend, of Sheldon Cooper. It has been in the business ever since 1997 and is a great alternative to heavy tools like Matlab and SAS. Statisticians love R and it has great utility in the corporate world.

As Data is the fuel of the 21st Century, R has become the lingua franca of data science. It is currently facing rising demands, which indicates that the future is brighter. It is a free open-source statistical programming language. That is why it is most commonly used by statisticians and data miners. R is supported by a general public license and its source code is written in C and FORTRAN. Its highly complex problem-solving capacity makes it admirable.

R might be intimidating for beginners, but give it some time and let it grow on you. R makes data manipulation and handling complex data, a child’s play. It has vibrant community support and new features are added constantly. It is a highly popular language among data scientists.

Average R Developer Salary in 2023 falls between $71,488 and $91,405

Who Should Learn R?

R is highly demanded among data scientists. If you are thinking of becoming an excellent data analyst and developer, you can opt to learn ‘R’. This language has a wide scope of application in industrial sectors as well as in the academic sector.

Its great data analyzing capacity makes its use in stats and data analysis. As it supports 3D graphics and unique data visualization features, it is going to bring you countless opportunities.

9. Swift

Swift is a programming language developed by Apple. Earlier, the Apple ecosystem was revolving around Objective C. But in an attempt to make things easier for developers, Apple released Swift, its very own programming language.

Why should you learn it? That’s quite simple, if you see yourself as an iOS app developer, you must learn Swift. The flaws in Objective-C have been addressed by Swift, so you can see a relatively clean, fast, and error-free. It can also reduce the length of your code, saving you time and energy.

Moreover, it is open-source, so developers can also develop on Windows or Linux systems, design their compilers, and be assured that their apps are compatible with Apple devices.

The average Swift Developer Salary in 2023 is $115,767

Who Should Learn Swift?

If you want to learn a language with less effort and for high earning, you should learn this language. You will soon be coding iOS Applications as other Apple Programmers. The language has good market demand and pays as well as Apple’s products and apps.

10. Kotlin

Kotlin is a programming language that was created by JetBrains in 2011. It is a statically typed language that runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and it was designed to be a better alternative to Java.

Kotlin is a popular language for mobile development, and it has been adopted by companies like Square and Airbnb.

Kotlin is a versatile language that can be used for a variety of purposes, making it a popular choice for businesses. Its concise code and ease of use make it an attractive option for mobile app development, and its compatibility with the JVM makes it a good choice for enterprise applications.

The average salary of a Kotlin developer is $130,000

Other Programming/Query Languages Worth Considering

There are other upcoming languages that might not be that well known and have less community support. But these languages are slowly making their presence felt. A few of the languages worth checking out are:

1. Rust

Rust is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language sponsored by Mozilla Research. It is designed to be a “safe, concurrent, practical language”, supporting pure-functional, imperative-procedural, and object-oriented styles.

Rust was made with the idea of eliminating common programming errors such as null pointers.

2. Julia

Julia is a newbie here and has the potential to surpass R and Python. It will need some more time before it can compete with the established players. Data scientists must watch out for Julia which is a fast-growing language and has the capability to revolutionize data crunching.

3. NoSQL Databases

In the realm of big data analytics, NoSQL databases are something you cannot avoid. If you are looking for an opportunity in the Big Data domain, you should consider learning the following NoSQL databases.

  1. MongoDB
  2. Cassandra.

You can view the list of NoSQL databases from here.

Average NoSQL Developer Salary: $105,000

4. SQL

Languages might change, but database requirements will never see a shift. Enterprises are reliant on SQL and database technologies like MySQL, and Microsoft SQL Server are widely in use. And since the demand is always high, there is no doubt that the salaries for database professionals are high.

Average SQL Developer Salary: $92,000

5. C

C is the mother of all programming languages and the craze for learning this language is constantly hiking. The cause? Well, it still promises amazing salaries and is still considered the first ladder to learning to program.

C is used for writing operating systems and inventory of other languages like UNIX, Perl, PHP, and Ruby. C is strongly preferred in applications where performance matters. Where high-level languages can slow down the performance, C works smoothly.

Who Should Learn C?

For everyone, who is willing to get into hardware coding or embedded systems, there is no better choice than C. C finds major applications in Open source Application software, system programming, optimization techniques, networking, evaluating mathematical equations, designing compilers, databases, spreadsheets, computer, and mobile games, etc.

6. C++

It is a statistically typed language and takes less time to execute than dynamically typed languages. C++-developed programs execute faster than Java code.

It is widely used in developing graphical applications like mobile games, solving mathematical equations, designing operating systems like Windows XP and Apple operating systems, Indexing, Internet browsers like Mozilla Firefox, Adobe system, and Photoshop, database design, and Google applications like Chrome.

Who Should Learn C++?

C++ is a highly scalable and user-friendly language. It would be a great choice for beginners to learn it as it is very similar to C. And if complexity, back-end coding, application programming, and logic interest you, C++ can pay a decent amount of salary for sure.

Overall Python has taken first place in 2023.

top ranking programming languages in 2023

As in the smartphone world, there is no clear winner in the programming languages world as well. If there was ever a war among programming languages, it would be a damp squib.

Although C and Python (PythoC or Cython) might win, each language has its benefits and shortcomings.

If you are looking for mobile development, maybe you could opt for Java or Python if your aim is to become a data scientist. However, becoming a ninja programmer takes time and effort. Make sure that you take the benefits of opportunities and have fun with coding!


Even though there are many programming languages, some of them are very popular among developers, companies, and recruiters worldwide. These include Python, Java, Javascript, etc.

These languages have been selected because of their growth rate, demand, and salary. We have also taken data from different developer surveys to understand it from a developer perspective to make it meaningful.

I hope this data helps you with some key programming language insights for 2023.

Now, If you want to get started with programming we have created a details list of coding websites that will help you learn programming.

  1. It’s a nice article. But Scheme, Groovy, and Clojure are conspicuously absent. These are all very important languages!

    And where are Dart, Elixir, Elm, Haxe, Julia, Kotlin, Rust, TypeScript…all of them important up-and-coming languages?

    Please tell us about this languages.

  2. Hello,
    Nice article a lot to learn from looking foreword for new articles from you do keep posting.
    Thank You..!!

  3. Golang is used in designing toolbox, documentation of browser, search engines, source indexing, analysis, and search. So, it will be beneficial for securing a good earning package by learning this language.

  4. Programming field is so big that there are endless opportunities to learn and grow.The prime goal of being a programmer is to understand new technologies and programming languages but many of us having question which language to learn. You have shared a great information on what languages you can learn in the current year. Thanks a lot for sharing this valuable article.

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