When you install Jenkins, by default the Jenkins service runs on port 8080. Also, there is no direct option to run the Jenkins service on port 80. In this tutorial, we have explained the steps to setup Jenkins access on port 80.
Running Jenkins on Port 80
You can achieve this using the following methods.
An IP table forwarding rule.
Using a reverse proxy like Nginx.
Running Jenkins behind a load balancer.
We will explain all three methods. You can choose one which is suitable for your environment.
Method 1: Running Jenkins on 80 Using IP table Forwarding Rule
This is the easiest way to access Jenkins on port 80. All you have to do is run the following IP wording rule.
Step 5: Execute the SELinux command for the Nginx reverse proxy.
sudo setsebool httpd_can_network_connect 1 -P
Step 6: Restart the Nginx server.
sudo systemctl restart nginx
Now if you will be able to access Jenkins on port 80.
Method 3: Jenkins behind a load balancer
Adding a load balancer will add extra cost to the Jenkins setup. If you are on a cloud, you can opt for a cloud-specific load balancer which will send all its port 80 traffic to backend Jenkins 8080 port.
This Hashicorp vault beginners tutorial will walk you through the steps on how to setup and configure a Hashicorp vault server with detailed instructions.
Vault is a tool from HashiCorp for securely storing and accessing secrets. Secret is nothing but all credentials like API Keys, passwords and certificates. Vault provides a unified interface to any secret while providing tight access control and recording a detailed audit log. Most of the organizations would keep their secrets in GitHub which can be seen by anyone who has access to the repo. Vault is designed in such a way that we can keep our database credentials, API keys for external services, credentials into vault and access directly from the application using APIs using various authentication mechanisms. HashiCorp Vault has more advantages than other similar services like HSMs, AWS KM, and keywhiz.
Most Common Use Cases of Vault
Following are the common use cases for Vault
A bare minimum vault can be used as a general secret storage, It is a great tool to store environment variables, DB credentials and API keys.
Vault is a good fit for storing credentials that employees share to access web services. The audit log mechanism lets you know what secrets an employee accessed and when an employee leaves, it is easier to roll keys and understand which keys have and haven’t been rolled.
The “dynamic secrets” feature of Vault is ideal for scripts: It can generate an access key for the duration of a script runtime which is like temporary access token.
In addition to being able to store secrets, Vault can be used to encrypt/decrypt data that is stored elsewhere. The primary use of this is to allow applications to encrypt their data being in the primary data store.
Key Vault Features
Secure Secret Storage: Arbitrary key/value secrets can be stored in Vault. It encrypts the secret and stores in a persistent backend storage. Vault supports multiple storage backends such as a local disk, consul or cloud storage like AWS S3 or GCS bucket.
Dynamic Secrets: Vault can generate secrets on-demand for some systems, such as AWS or SQL databases. For example, when an application needs to access an S3 bucket, it asks Vault for credentials, and Vault will generate an AWS keypair with valid permissions on demand. After creating these dynamic secrets, Vault will also automatically revoke them after the lease is up.
Data Encryption: Vault is capable of encrypting and decrypting data without storing it. This allows security teams to define encryption parameters and developers to store encrypted data in a location such as SQL without having to design their own encryption methods.
Leasing and Renewal: Secrets in vaults are associated with the lease, end of the lease vault will revoke the secrets, We can renew lease using renew APIs.
Revocation: Vault has built-in support for secret revocation.
Setup and configure Vault Server on Linux
Follow the steps given below for setting up the vault server.
Step 1: Download the latest version of vault binary zip file from vault release page and unzip it.
sudo wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/vault/0.10.3/vault_0.10.3_linux_amd64.zip
sudo unzip vault_0.10.3_linux_amd64.zip -d .
Step 2: Copy vault binary into /usr/bin. This will allow us to execute vault binary systemwide.
sudo cp vault /usr/bin/
Step 3: Create a vault config directory under /etc, a vault data directory and logs directory.
You will get an error server is not yet initialized as shown below. You could see vault is sealed by default. This is because of the default behavior of vault.
Error checking seal status: Error making API request.
URL: GET http://188.8.131.52:8200/v1/sys/seal-status
Code: 400. Errors:
* server is not yet initialized
Let’s initiate the vault server and store the initial tokens in a file.
Note: execute the following command by logging in as the root user.
vault operator init > /etc/vault/init.file
Noe vault is initiated but sealed. You can view the status using the following command.
Open the init file to get the unseal and root tokens. These tokens can be used to unseal the vault web UI during the first login.
An example, the output containing the root token is shown below.
Unseal Key 1: jsQ6ZshBCowoddwDhHTy7DgJU9To8YAprYToqPkMUrNg
Unseal Key 2: 9PWznYV+uM+a1o6rMEGcuINeCtGnMRiV1a5xTe6EerSd
Unseal Key 3: mavIFllXbQmo7QE2qmLuH9HfYEPQMLpCZNgT0QoRUkcE
Unseal Key 4: VzXhuvnNuZkld4LnhPEjNyTEMJR3qIkq/UsinwWWdv5l
Unseal Key 5: ho23N6R2WGPOpijGsCMElv/z4u9OxMw9AbEEMbePySU7
Initial Root Token: d4dd0b96-4767-57a3-9081-aca03e530c8f
Vault initialized with 5 key shares and a key threshold of 3. Please securely
distribute the key shares printed above. When the Vault is re-sealed,
restarted, or stopped, you must supply at least 3 of these keys to unseal it
before it can start servicing requests.
Vault does not store the generated master key. Without at least 3 key to
reconstruct the master key, Vault will remain permanently sealed!
It is possible to generate new unseal keys, provided you have a quorum of
existing unseal keys shares. See "vault operator rekey" for more information.
Once a Vault is unsealed, it remains unsealed until one of two things happens:
It is re-sealed via the API (see below).
If vault service gets restarted or during a server restart.
Step 9: Unseal vault using unseal command. There are 5 unseal tokens. You need to execute the unseal command with a minimum of three unseal token to unseal vault.
Here you can see your standalone vault is up and running successfully, you can start by enabling authentication method and secret engine which you like,
[[email protected] opt]# vault status
Seal Type shamir
Total Shares 5
Cluster Name vault-cluster-865eaf7d
Cluster ID 3164ab8f-d344-c835-af14-644cdc487a73
HA Enabled true
HA Cluster https://10.128.0.2:8201
HA Mode active
Step 10: Now you can also view vault console using the following URL,
Finally, you can log in with root credentials which we created while initializing vault, in our case d4dd0b96-4767-57a3-9081-aca03e530c8f. Managing will be easy through UI
Once you login you will see the following page,
Vault Roles and Policies
Once the setup is done, you can use vault by enabling AppRoles or some other auth methods with proper policies associated with it. Covering full roles and policies is out of the scope of this article.
You can create AppRole and Policies through CLI as well as vault console.